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Expected Learning Outcomes

 Program Purpose

The purpose of the undergraduate chemistry program at the University of Utah is to provide the key knowledge base and laboratory resources to prepare students for careers as professionals in the field of chemistry, for graduate study in chemistry, biological chemistry and related fields, and for professional school including medical, dental, law and business programs.

Learning Outcomes

  • Students will have a firm foundation in the fundamentals and application of current chemical and scientific theories including those in Analytical, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistries. Majors to be certified by the American Chemical Society will have extensive laboratory work and knowledge of Biological Chemistry.
  • Students will be able to design and carry out scientific experiments as well as accurately record and analyze the results of such experiments.
  • Students will be skilled in problem solving, critical thinking and analytical reasoning as applied to scientific problems.
  • Students will be able to clearly communicate the results of scientific work in oral, written and electronic formats to both scientists and the public at large.
  • Students will be able to explore new areas of research in both chemistry and allied fields of science and technology.
  • Students will appreciate the central role of chemistry in our society and use this as a basis for ethical behavior in issues facing chemists including an understanding of safe handling of chemicals, environmental issues and key issues facing our society in energy, health and medicine.
  • Students will be able to function as a member of an interdisciplinary problem solving team.

 

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. chemical reactions and strategies to balance them
  2. the relative quantities of reactants and products
  3. the fundamental properties of atoms, molecules, and the various states of matter
  4. the electronic structure of atoms and its influence on chemical properties
  5. molecular geometries of selected molecular species
  6. the fundamentals of acid/base chemistry, including pH calculations, buffer behavior, and acid/base titrations
  7. the energy and speed of chemical reactions
  8. unit conversions and their importance in clinical medicine
  9. molecular interactions and chemical reactions in the body
  10. the scientific method of collecting and analyzing information
  11. proper laboratory safety and techniques

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the structures and properties of organic and biomolecular species
  2. the principles influencing reactivity, including acid-base behaviors and reaction networks important in nutrition and metabolism
  3. how to carry out organic reactions and how to prepare their solutions
  4. laboratory techniques such as distillation, extraction and crystallization
  5. the quantitative assessment of data
  6. how communicate the results of their experiments primarily via written laboratory reports

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. setting up problems in unit dimensional analysis
  2. identifying the variables and the unknowns and setting up problems
  3. balancing simple chemical reactions and strategies to balance them
  4. naming simple compounds
  5. the fundamental properties of atoms, molecules, and the various states of matter
  6. simple quantum mechanical treatments of atoms and molecules
  7. writing electronic configurations, orbital diagrams, Lewis electron dot formula, and quantum numbers for electrons in the ground state
  8. how to balance simple ionic compounds using the information how quantum mechanics apply to the charges on metals and nonmetals
  9. how to predict molecular geometries of selected molecular species using the Octet rule
  10. calculating the oxidation states of elements in compounds that have variable oxidation states
  11. nomenclature for nonmetals bonded to nonmetals, for transition elements in compounds, and oxy-acids and their salts
  12. the mole concept, molar mass, calculations to determine simple formula and molecular formula from percentage composition and elemental percentage of compounds
  13. stoichiometric calculations of chemical equations to determine the quantities of reactants and products, limiting reagent problems, and enthalpies of reactions
  14. the gases laws, molar volume, Graham’s Law of effusion, and Kinetic Theory Stoichiometric calculations involving gas laws of chemical equations to determine the quantities of reactants and products and limiting reagent problems

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the fundamental properties of atoms, molecules, and the various states of matter with an emphasis on the particulate nature of matter
  2. fundamental atomic structure and the periodicity of elements in the periodic table
  3. simple quantum mechanical treatments of atoms and molecules
  4. how to predict molecular geometries of selected molecular species
  5. the fundamentals of acid/base reactions, redox reactions and precipitation reactions
  6. chemical reactions involve the flow of energy
  7. current bonding models for simple inorganic and organic molecules in order to predict structures and important bonding parameters
  8. general periodicity patterns of (organic/inorganic) molecules, and the ability to design synthetic approaches to such species.
  9. the idea of a mole and the use of stoichiometry
  10. the “gas laws” governing the physical/chemical behavior of gases

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. common laboratory techniques including pH measurement, acid/base titrations, UV/Visible spectroscopy in both emission and absorption mode, calorimetry, and colorimetry.
  2. the use of the techniques mentioned above to solve chemical problems.
  3. how to carry out self-directed experiments
  4. practical laboratory experiments

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the basic (colligative) properties of solutions
  2. the fundamentals of acid/base equilibria, including pH calculations, buffer behavior, acid/base titrations, and their relationship to electrophiles and nucleophiles
  3. the thermodynamic and kinetic forces involved in chemical reactions which determine how much and how soon products are formed
  4. the basics of electrochemistry, and the relationship of electrical parameters to thermodynamic and stoichiometric parameters
  5. current bonding models for simple inorganic and organic molecules in order to predict structures and important bonding parameters
  6. general periodicity patterns of (organic/inorganic) molecules, and the ability to design synthetic approaches to such species.
  7. general chemical equilibria
  8. solubility and complex ion equilibria
  9. basic aspects of nuclear chemistry

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the use of an analytical balance for mass measurement
  2. the use of graduated cylinders, graduated pipettes, and volumetric pipettes for volumetric measurement
  3. the use of thermometers and temperature probes
  4. titrations 
  5. the calibration and use simple spectrophotometers, pH meters, centrifuges, and vortexers
  6. The analysis of data using a spreadsheet program such as Excel
  7. how to design and perform experiments to determine the rate, order, and activation energy of chemical reactions by varying concentrations and/or temperature
  8. methods to measure equilibrium concentrations and equilibrium constants for acid-base, solubility, and complexation reactions given initial concentrations of reactant
  9. the preparation of buffer solutions at a required pH, given a choice of solutions of acid/conjugate base pairs
  10. the identification of the absence or presence of a number of cations or anions in solution, using tests based on acid-base, solubility, and complexation equilibria
  11. the acquisition of solubility vs. temperature  data and the calculation of ΔH, ΔS, and  ΔG for dissolving a salt at a given temperature.  
  12. how to set up and use an electrolysis cell to determine the equivalent mass of an unknown metal
  13. the determination of the molar mass of an unknown nonelectrolyte and an unknown electrolyte from a freezing point depression experiment
  14. ligand strengths by the stability of the complexes and precipitates formed by the ligands with a given metal ion

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the hybridization and geometry of atoms and the three-dimensional structure of organic molecules
  2. the reactivity and stability of an organic molecule based on structure, including conformation and stereochemistry
  3. an understanding of nucleophiles, electrophiles, electronegativity, and resonance
  4. the prediction of mechanisms for organic reactions
  5. how to use their understanding of organic mechanisms to predict the outcome of reactions
  6. how to design syntheses of organic molecules
  7. how to determine the structure of organic molecules using IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. how to calculate a limiting reagent, yield, and percent yield
  2. how to maintain a detailed scientific notebook
  3. how to critically evaluate data collected to determine the identity, purity, and yield of products
  4. how to summarize findings in writing in a clear and concise manner
  5. how to use the scientific method to create, test, and evaluate a hypothesis
  6. how to engage in safe laboratory practices handling laboratory glassware, equipment, and chemical reagents
  7. how to characterize organic molecules by physical and spectroscopic means, including mp, bp, IR, NMR, GC
  8. how to perform common laboratory techniques, including reflux, distillation, steam distillation, recrystallization, vacuum filtration, aqueous extraction, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography
  9. how to predict the outcome and mechanism of some simple organic reactions, using a basic understanding of the relative reactivity of functional groups

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy for organic structure elucidation
  2. the fundamentals of electronic structure and bonding in conjugated and aromatic systems
  3. reactivity patterns of conjugated and aromatic molecules
  4. the fundamental electronic structure and bonding in carbonyl compounds
  5. substituent effects on pKa (in the case of carboxylic acids)
  6. the reactivity of carbonyl compounds with both hard and soft nucleophiles (carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones)
  7. the kinetics and thermodynamics of carbonyl condensation reactions
  8. the fundamental properties and reactivity of biologically important molecules (e.g. carbohydrates, amines and amino-acids)

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. how to calculate limiting reagent, theoretical yield, and percent yield
  2. how to engage in safe laboratory practices by handling laboratory glassware, equipment, and chemical reagents appropriately
  3. how to dispose of chemicals in a safe and responsible manner
  4. how to work effectively as a member of a team. Communicate productively with lab mates, teaching assistant and instructor
  5. how to maintain a detailed scientific notebook
  6. how to use the scientific method to create, test, and evaluate a hypothesis
  7. how to characterize products by physical and spectroscopic means including mp, IR, NMR, GC, and MS
  8. how to consult the scientific literature for physical data and experimental procedures
  9. how to perform common laboratory techniques including reflux, distillation, recrystallization, vacuum filtration,and thin-layer chromatography
  10. how to create and carry out work up and separation procedures
  11. how to critically evaluate data collected to determine the identity, purity, and percent yield of products and to summarize findings in writing in a clear and concise manner
  12. how to predict the outcome of organic reactions using a basic understanding of the general reactivity of functional groups and mechanism

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the distinction between qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis
  2. the application of statistical methods for the evaluation of laboratory data
  3. methods for calibration and sampling applied to quantitative analysis
  4. assessment methods of analysis related to chemical analysis goals such as detection limits
  5. the use chemical equilibrium theory to design quantitative analyses and interpret results
  6. the performance of graphical analysis to analyze laboratory results
  7. the application of analytical methods based on titrations, separations, mass spectrometry, electrochemical measurements, and spectroscopy at an introductory level
  8. the design and application of an analysis related to a question of relevance based on experience in the laboratory and research of the scientific literature

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the limitations of classical mechanics at molecular length scales
  2. the differences between classical and quantum mechanics
  3. the connection of quantum mechanical operators to observables
  4. probabilities, amplitudes, averages, expectation values, and observables
  5. how molecular phenomena can be related to model problems
  6. how to interpret spectra
  7. the connection between common approximation methods and standard chemical frameworks (Born-Oppenheimer approximation, molecular orbitals, for example)
  8. molecular-level critical thinking skills

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the application of mathematical tools to calculate thermodynamic and kinetic properties
  2. the relationship between microscopic properties of molecules with macroscopic thermodynamic observables
  3. the derivation of rate equations from mechanistic data
  4. the use of simple models for predictive understanding of physical phenomena associated to chemical thermodynamics and kinetics
  5. the limitations and uses of models for the solution of applied problems involving chemical thermodynamic and kinetics

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. concepts in thermodynamics, different thermodynamic quantities such as heat and work and how they are measured, related or transformed from one to the other
  2. states of matter and how they depend on temperature and pressure as well as how they co-exist in phase equilibria
  3. chemical equilibrium and its relationship with themodynamic quantities
  4. the transport of ions and thermodynamic functions with applications to electron transfer in biological systems
  5. chemical kinetics; how reaction rates are measured and represented in rate laws, and applications of chemical kinetics in studying enzyme mechanisms
  6. basic quantum chemistry and atomic structures of atoms
  7. chemical bonding from the valence bond model and molecular orbital theory
  8. computational methods for studying biochemical processes
  9. methods for determining size, shape, and 3D structure of bio-molecules
  10. spectroscopic methods that are used to study biochemical processes

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the bonding fundamentals for both ionic and covalent compounds, including electronegativities, bond distances and bond energies using MO diagrams and thermodynamic data
  2. predicting geometries of simple molecules
  3. the fundamentals of the chemistry of the main group elements, and important real world applications of many of these species
  4. the use of group theory to recognize and assign symmetry characteristics to molecules and objects, and to predict the appearance of a molecule’s vibrational spectra as a function of symmetry
  5. the bonding models, structures, reactivities, and applications of coordination complexes, boron hydrides, metal carbonyls, and organometallics

Lecture

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the fundamentals of nuclear decay
  2. the properties of an atomic nucleus that make it unstable and undergo nuclear decay
  3. how to use the Chart of the Nuclides
  4. the proper methods to detect various types of ionizing radiation
  5. how various radiation detection instruments are constructed and become familiar with the electronic circuitry that is necessary for their operation
  6. the theoretical and practical principles behind liquid scintillation spectrometry
  7. the statistical methods behind nuclear instrumentation for detection of ionizing radiation
  8. how alpha spectrometry can be used to detect and identify alpha particles
  9. how gamma spectrometry can be used to detect and to identify gamma photons
  10. how the neutron capture cross-section varies among atomic isotopes and how nuclear activation analysis can be used to identify small quantities of various isotopes
  11. how to use radiotracer methodology in the laboratory.
  12. the biological effects of different types of ionizing radiation and learn the unique characteristics of cutaneous radiation burns and whole-body radiation exposure
  13. how positron-emitting medical isotopes are produced and detected, and understand the unique properties of these isotopes for diagnostic imaging
  14. how radiopharmaceuticals are produced for the treatment of disease and understand why different radioisotopes are chosen to treat different diseases
  15. the dangers of radon and radon daughter particles and how to detect exposure and how to quantify very low levels of radiation
  16. how to avoid the specific radiation and radioisotope hazards associated with a fissile nuclear explosion and an explosive radiological dispersive device
  17. what information must be collected in a nuclear forensic analysis of a nuclear event to understand human exposure to limit further exposure of the population, treat exposed individuals, and be able to attribute a nuclear event to an accidental release, to persons or to a nation state

Laboratory

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the safe laboratory use of radionuclides and be certified for use of radioisotopes at the University of Utah
  2. alpha, beta, and gamma emitting radionuclides.
  3. Geiger-Muller survey meters and scintillation-based survey meters
  4. liquid scintillation counting, alpha spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry to identify and to quantify radioisotopes
  5. the difficulty in detecting and quantifying radioisotopes in their natural geological
  6. the occurrence of radon daughter particles in environmental samples

 Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the chemical basis for biological phenomena and cellular structure
  2. how physiological conditions (esp. the chemistry of water) influence the structures and reactivities of biomolecules
  3. the chemical properties of amino acids, cofactors, and sugar
  4. the basic principles of protein and polysaccharide structure
  5. enzyme kinetics and their application to the elucidation of catalytic mechanisms
  6. constructing reasonable electron-pushing mechanisms for enzyme-catalyzed reactions
  7. the chemical logic of metabolism
  8. how health, disease, and modern medicine are all rooted in biological chemistry

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. pH and ionization equilibria in biochemistry
  2. absorbance spectrophotometry in biochemistry
  3. quantitative data analysis, especially curve fitting
  4. protein structure and molecular modeling, including the use of the computer program PyMOL
  5. mechanisms of enzyme catalysis and inhibition, particularly in proteases
  6. the analysis of enzyme kinetic data
  7. the principles of electrophoresis for characterizing proteins
  8. the principles of chromatography for characterizing proteins

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. membrane structures – component molecules, supramolecular arrays, structure and function of proteins associated with membranes
  2. transport mechanisms across membranes
  3. biosignaling – mechanisms for amplification of signals, components of signal transduction networks, types of signal transducers, mechanisms for activation and regulation of signal transducers
  4. biosynthetic pathways – steps in biosynthesis of lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids, regulation of pathways, structure and function of biosynthetic enzymes, mechanisms of action of biosynthetic enzymes
  5. the synthesis, regulation, transport of cholesterol; structure of lipoproteins; mechanism of regulation of serum cholesterol by statins
  6. nucleic acid structure – building blocks of both DNA and RNA, secondary structures, tertiary structures and higher order packaging of genomic DNA
  7. DNA replication – steps in synthesis of new DNA from template, regulation of pathways and mechanisms of action for DNA replication enzymes, DNA repair processes
  8. gene transcription – process of transcribing DNA into messenger RNA, mechanisms of RNA processing, roles, mechanisms and structures of transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and other small functional RNAs
  9. translation – process for translation of messenger RNA into polypeptides, interpreting the genetic code, mechanism of ribosomal action
  10. protein post-translational modifications, mechanisms of cellular localization and steps in protein degradation

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the principles and applications of modern chemical instrumentation, experimental design, and data analysis
  2. the underlying chemical and physical of instrumental methods of analysis, including electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, reaction kinetics, chemical separation methods, and mass spectrometry
  3. formulating and solving problems in the laboratory
  4. how to work with others as part of a team to solve scientific problems
  5. how to communicate scientific information clearly and accurately, both in oral and in written forms
  6. the composition of written laboratory reports that summarize experimental procedures and the accuratlye present and interpret data
  7. the use of proper grammar and formal scientific style in written reporting of laboratory results
  8. statistical methods of data analysis including error distributions, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, the method of maximum likelihood or least-squares analysis
  9. plotting data in two and three dimensions for effective presentations in written reports

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the planning and implementation of advanced organic reactions
  2. the purification of molecules from reactions in a
  3. detailed organic structure analysis

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the preparation for each experiment by studying lab handouts and links therein
  2. safety requirements and lab skills to perform physico-chemical experiments
  3. how to keep records of instruments, parameters, and experimental observations
  4. reporting of experimental results (including error analysis) in a publication-style (journal paper)
  5. an appreciation for modern problems and scientific controversies in physical chemistry
  6. key spectroscopic techniques including FTIR, UV-vis absorption, luminescence, laser methods
  7. the use of chemistry software programs to model energy potentials and vibrational levels of molecules
  8. the use of standard vacuum and cryogenic techniques used in physic-chemical experiments

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. key concepts of inorganic and organometallic chemistry including those related to synthesis, reaction chemistry, and structure and bonding
  2. basic and advanced laboratory procedures used in inorganic synthesis including spectroscopic and analytical techniques for identification and characterization of small molecules
  3. laboratory safety
  4. The communication of the results of scientific experiments in oral reports, technical graphics, and written reports
  5. the chemical literature and to read and understand technical literature related to the discipline
  6. how to contribute to solutions of problems encountered in an experiment
  7. making informed choices among post-graduate opportunities for work or further education
  8. how to maintain high standards of professional and scientific ethics

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. carry out an organic reaction, including isolating, purifying, and characterizing the product. 
  2. quantify DNA concerntation and properly handle DNA samples
  3. prepare solutions of buffers and surfactants
  4. utilize UV spectrophotometry to monitor reaction progress
  5. calculate rate constants using spectrophotometric data
  6. report protocols and results in a manner that would enable others to reproduce your work
  7. critically analyze data obtained
  8. write the abstract to a scientific publication

Students will gain an understanding of:

  1. the historical evolution and current revolution that is nanoscience
  2. the fundamental uniqueness of the chemical and physical properties of nanomaterials and their potential impact in science, engineering, medicine, and the environment
  3. the interdisciplinary nature of nanoscience
  4. top down and bottom up methods of nanomaterials preparation
  5. the tools behind nanomaterials characterization (e.g., the scanning tunneling microscope)
  6. the importance of diffusion as a primary means of movement by nanomaterials
  7. micro- and nano-fluidics
  8. approaches to the development of chemical and biological sensors based on plasmonics, spintronics, nanoporosity and issues related to their translation from the research laboratory to the clinic and to point-of-care applications
  9. nanotherapeutics and nanotoxicity
  10. futuristic concepts like nanorobots, nanorockets, and fantastic voyage-like submarines. These objectives are packaged with discussion sessions designed to enforce out-of-the-box thinking skills, teaming work, and communications
Last Updated: 9/18/17