Research Group


Professor Breckenridge in Paris

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

Professor Emeritus

Professor Breckenridge chose to take early retirement in 2005. However, he is still involved in science, for example, in collaborations with scientists in both France and England. He hopes to continue his travels to France until he drops over dead.

Phone:(801) 581-8024 (work)

Phone: (801) 582-7285 (home)

Office: 4424 HEB-S

Email: breck@chem.utah.edu

I. Employment History

  • Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey Member of Technical Staff, January 1970 - September 1971
  • Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Assistant Professor, 1971-1976
  • Associate Professor, 1976-1980
  • Professor, 1980-2005
  • Professor Emeritus, 2005

II. Educational Background

  • Kansas University, Lawrence, Kansas, 1959-1963, B.S., Chemistry, with Honors and Highest Distinction
  • Leeds University, Leeds, England, 1963-1964, Graduate Research, Physical Chemistry
  • Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1964-1968, Ph.D., Physical and Inorganic Chemistry
  • Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1969, Postdoctoral Research, Physical Chemistry

III. Early Research Experience

  • University of Kansas, 1962-1963: Hot Atom Chemistry Advisor: Professor F. S. Rowland (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1995)
  • Leeds University, 1963-1964: Photochemistry in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Advisors: Professor Sir F. S. Dainton, Dr. D. L. Baulch
  • Stanford University, 1964-1968: Photochemistry, Isotope Exchange, Gas Kinetics, Matrix Isolation of Reactive Species Advisor: Professor Henry Taube (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1983) Thesis Title: Reactions of Sulfur Atoms Produced by Photolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide
  • Cambridge University, 1969: Flash Photolysis, Kinetic Spectroscopy Advisor: Dr. A. B. Callear
  • Bell Laboratories, 1970: Gas Kinetics of Excited Species Using Flow Techniques with EPR Detection Collaborator: Dr. T. A. Miller

IV. Membership in Professional and Honorary Societies

  • American Chemical Society
  • American Physical Society
  • Phi Beta Kappa
  • Phi Lambda Upsilon

V. Visiting Positions

  • 2007 Royal Society of England Travel Grant (North America Short Visit), for collaboration with Dr. Tim Wright, U. of Nottingham.
  • 2005-onwards Scientific Collaboration with B. Soep (CEA, Saclay, France) and N. Shafizideh (U. of Paris-Sud, France)
  • 2005-onwards Visiting Professor, U of Nottingham (collaboration with Dr. Tim Wright).
  • 2001-2002 Visiting Senior Scholar, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Saclay, France (sabbatical leave with J.-P. Mestdagh and B. Soep)
  • 1993 Visiting Professor, Chemistry Research Promotion Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1985 Kipping Visiting Professor, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England
  • 1985 Professeur Associé, Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France (sabbatical leave with B. Soep)
  • 1984 Visiting Research Professor, Max-Planck-Institut für Strömungsforschung, Göttingen, West Germany (sabbatical leave with Ch. Ottinger)
  • 1977-1978 Visiting Scholar, Stanford University (sabbatical leave with R.N. Zare)

VI. Awards and Honors

University of Utah

2005 W.H. Breckenridge Scholarship for Honors chemistry students was created by the Department of Chemistry in his honor. (Donations to this scholarship fund can be made by sending a check to The University of Utah, Department of Chemistry, W.H.B. Scholarship (c/o Shari Zinik), 315 South 1400 East, Rm. 2020, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112.

  • 2005 Elected Professor Emeritus by colleagues in the Department of Chemistry.
  • 2005 Calvin S. and JeNeal N. Hatch Prize in Teaching (only one award given per year to all faculty at the University of Utah)
  • 2003 University of Utah Distinguished Scholarly and Creative Research Award (given to only three faculty per year, across all departments)
  • 2001 University of Utah Faculty Fellow Award (semester=s leave with pay for a research project at Saclay, France).
  • 1999 Elected Fellow of the American Physical Society
  • 1994 University of Utah Presidential Teaching Scholar Award
  • 1992 University of Utah Distinguished Teaching Award (given to only three faculty per year, across all departments)
  • 1990 Robert W. Parry Teaching Award in Chemistry (First recipient of an endowed award in the Department of Chemistry.)
  • 1985 J. S. Guggenheim Fellow
  • 1984 Senior Fulbright Fellow (Germany)
  • 1984 Student Advisory Committee Teaching Award (Outstanding teacher in the Department of Chemistry for 1983-1984 academic year)
  • 1980 David P. Gardner Faculty Fellow
  • 1978 National Science Foundation Science Faculty Development Grant (Sabbatical leave at Stanford University)
  • 1974 Student Advisory Committee Teaching Award (Outstanding teacher in the Department of Chemistry for 1973-1974 academic year)
  • 1973 Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar, 1973-1978

Cambridge University

  • 1969 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Postdoctoral Fellow (Recipients were selected by the National Science Foundation.)

Stanford University

  • 1965-1968 National Science Foundation Fellow

Leeds University

  • 1963-1964 Fulbright Fellow, England (Honorary Woodrow Wilson Fellow)

Kansas University

  • 1963 American Institute of Chemists Award (to the most outstanding graduating senior majoring in chemistry)
  • 1963 Hamilton Award (science major who contributed most to the study of the humanities)
  • 1961-1963 Summerfield Scholar

Louisburg Rural High School, Louisburg, Kansas

  • 1955-1959 Quarterback of the undefeated LRHS football team, 1958.
  • Elected president of the senior class, 1958.
  • Valedictorian, class of 1959.

PUBLICATIONS

  1. W.H. Breckenridge, John W. Root and F.S. Rowland, "Recoil Tritium Reactions:  Variation in Hot Abstraction Yield with C-H Bond Type," J. Chem. Phys.39, 2374 (1963).
  2. J.W. Root, W.H. Breckenridge and F.S. Rowland, "Abstraction of Hydrogen Atoms by Energetic Recoil Tritium Atoms: Correlation with C-H Bond-Dissociation Energies in Hydrocarbons," J. Chem. Phys.43, 3694 (1965).
  3. D.L. Baulch and W.H. Breckenridge, "Isotope Exchange of O(1D) with CO2," Trans. Faraday Soc.62, 2768 (1966).
  4. E. Weissberger, W.H. Breckenridge and Henry Taube, "The Reaction of O(1D) with CO2 at Low Temperatures," J. Chem. Phys.47, 1764 (1967).
  5. W.H. Breckenridge and Henry Taube, "The Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum of Carbonyl Sulfide," J. Chem. Phys.52, 1713 (1970).
  6. W.H. Breckenridge and Henry Taube, "Some Reactions of Ground-State (3P) and Electronically Excited (1D) Sulfur Atoms," J. Chem. Phys.53, 1750 (1970).
  7. W.H. Breckenridge and A.B. Callear, "Flash Spectroscopy with Cadmium Resonance Radiation," Chem. Phys. Lett.5, 17 (1970).
  8. W.H. Breckenridge and A.B. Callear, "Flash Spectroscopy with 2288 Å and 3261 Å Cadmium Resonance Radiation," Trans. Faraday Soc.67, 2009 (1971).
  9. W.H. Breckenridge and R.J. Donovan, "Reaction of S(31D2) with N2O," Chem. Phys. Lett.11, 520 (1971).
  10. W.H. Breckenridge and T.A. Miller, "A Kinetic Study by EPR of the Production and Decay of SO(1Δ) in the Reaction of O2(1Δg) with SO(3Σ-)" J. Chem. Phys. 56, 465 (1972).
  11. W.H. Breckenridge and T.A. Miller, "The Determination by Gas Phase EPR of the Absolute Concentration of Species Undergoing Electric Dipole Transitions," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 475 (1972).
  12. W.H. Breckenridge and T.A. Miller, "Detection of Metastable 3P Argon Atoms by Gas Phase EPR," Chem. Phys. Lett. 12, 437 (1972).
  13. T.J. Cook, B.R. Zegarski, W.H. Breckenridge and T.A. Miller, "Gas Phase EPR of Vibrationally Excited O2," J. Chem. Phys. 58, 1548 (1973).
  14. W.H. Breckenridge and T.W. Broadbent, "Cross-Sections for Quenching of Cd(3PJ) as Determined by Resonance Radiation Flash Photolysis," Chem. Phys. Lett. 29, 421 (1974).
  15. W.H. Breckenridge, W.S. Kolln and D.S. Moore, "Reactions of Carbon Monosulfide.  I.  An Experimental Kinetic Technique and a Study of the Reaction of CS with O2," Chem. Phys. Lett. 32, 290 (1975).
  16. W.H. Breckenridge, T. W. Broadbent and D.S. Moore, "A Determination by Resonance-Radiation Flash Photolysis of the Absolute Reaction Rates of Excited Cadmium Cd(5P0,1) Atoms with Several Gases," J. Phys. Chem. 79, 1233 (1975).
  17. R.P. Blickensderfer, W.H. Breckenridge and D.S. Moore, "A Direct Determination of Absolute Quenching Cross-Sections for Mg(3PJ) Using Pulsed Tunable Dye Laser Excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 63, 3681 (1975).
  18. R.P. Blickensderfer, W.H. Breckenridge and J.P. Simons, "The Diffusion Theory of Imprisonment of Atomic Resonance Radiation at Low Opacities," J. Phys. Chem. 80, 653 (1976).
  19. G.T. Bida, W.H. Breckenridge and W.S. Kolln, "A Kinetic Study of the Very Fast Reaction:  O(3P) + CS 6CO + S(3P)," J. Chem. Phys. 64, 3296 (1976).
  20. W.H. Breckenridge and J. FitzPatrick, "Production of NO(A2Σ+, v=0) by Electronic Energy Transfer Between Cd(1P1) and NO(X2Π)," J. Phys. Chem. 80, 1955 (1976).
  21. W.H. Breckenridge, R.P. Blickensderfer and J. FitzPatrick, "Near-Resonant Electronic Energy Transfer Between Zn(1P1) and NO(X2Π)," J. Phys. Chem. 80, 1963 (1976).
  22. W.H. Breckenridge and A.M. Renlund, "Quenching of Excited Cadmium (1P1) Atoms by Several Molecules.  Cross-Sections and Chemical and Physical Exit-Channels," J. Phys. Chem. 82, 1474 (1978).
  23. W.H. Breckenridge and A.M. Renlund, "Reaction of Excited Cadmium (3PJ) and Cadmium (1P1) Atoms with H2, HD, and D2.  Quenching Cross-Sections and CdH (CdD) Yields," J. Phys. Chem. 82, 1484 (1978).
  24. W.H. Breckenridge, O. Kim Malmin, W.L. Nikolai and D. Oba, "A Rapid 'Pump-and-Probe' Laser Technique for Determining State-Resolved Product Distributions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 38 (1978).
  25. W.H. Breckenridge and A.M. Renlund, "The Reaction of Excited Cadmium (3PJ) Atoms with Alkane Hydrocarbons.  Quenching Cross-Sections and Primary CdH Yields," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 303 (1979).
  26. W.H. Breckenridge, R.P. Blickensderfer, John FitzPatrick and D. Oba, "Near Resonant Electronic Energy Transfer:  Initial Rotational State Populations of NO(A2Σ+, v'=0,1) Produced by Energy Transfer from Zn(1P1)," J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4751 (1979).
  27. W.H. Breckenridge, R.J. Donovan and O. Kim Malmin, "Laser Excitation of Cd(1P1).  Absolute Quenching Cross-Sections and Branching Ratios for the Process:  Cd(1P1) + M 6 Cd(3PJ) + M," Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 608 (1979).
  28. W.H. Breckenridge and A.M. Renlund, "Collisional Quenching of Electronically Excited Zinc Atoms. Cross Sections and Exit Channels," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 1145 (1979).
  29. W.H. Breckenridge, G.T. Bida and W.S. Kolln, "Catalysis by Iron Pentacarbonyl of the Polymerization of Carbon Monosulfide in a Flow Tube at Low Pressures," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 1150 (1979).
  30. R.J. Donovan, H.M. Gillespie, W.H. Breckenridge, and C. Fotakis, "Isotope Effects in the Quenching of Electronically Excited Atoms:  Quenching of I(52P) by Methane and Deuteromethanes Studied by Time-resolved Resonance Fluorescence," J.C.S. Far. Trans. II75, 1557 (1979).
  31. W.H. Breckenridge and O. Kim Malmin, "The Initial Distributions of Cd(3P0,1,2) Electronic States in the Collisional Deactivation of Cd(1P1) by Alkane Hydrocarbons," Chem. Phys. Lett. 68, 341 (1979).
  32. W.H. Breckenridge and D. Oba, "Initial Rotational State Product Distributions Using the Pump-and-Probe Laser Technique," Chem. Phys. Lett. 72, 455 (1980).
  33. W.H. Breckenridge and W.L. Nikolai, "Temperature Dependence of the Quenching of Mg(3PJ) by H2:  Evidence for a Change from Physical to Chemical Exit- Channel Control," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 2763 (1980).
  34. W.H. Breckenridge, Noah Adams, and Jack Simons, "A Theoretical Study of the Reaction of Mg(3s3p3P) with H2," Chem. Phys. 56, 327 (1981).
  35. W.H. Breckenridge, W.L. Nikolai and J. Stewart, "Triplet-Triplet Energy-Pooling Processes in Magnesium Vapor," J. Chem. Phys. 74, 2073 (1981).
  36. W.H. Breckenridge and O. Kim Malmin, "State-to-State Studies of the Collisional Quenching of Electronically Excited Cd(1P1) Atoms," J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3307, (1981).
  37. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Laser Studies of the Collisional Quenching of Electronically Excited Mg(3s3p1P1) Atoms," J. Chem. Phys. 75, 698 (1981).
  38. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Bimodal Rotational Quantum State Distribution of MgH(X2Σ+,v=0) in the Reaction of Mg(3s3p1P1) with H2:  Evidence for Microscopic Branching," J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4153 (1981).
  39. W.H. Breckenridge and N. Sinai, "Pulsed Laser Photolysis of Chromium Hexacarbonyl in the Gas Phase," J. Phys. Chem. 85, 3557 (1981).
  40. W.H. Breckenridge and O.K. Malmin, "The Collisional Intramultiplet Relaxation of Cd(5s5p3P0,1,2) by Alkane Hydrocarbons," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1812 (1982).
  41. R. Blickensderfer, K. Jordan, N. Adams, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Complexes of Be(2s2p3P,1P) and Mg(3s3p3P,1P) with H2:  Implications for the Mg(1P) + H2 6 MgH(2Σ) + H(2S) Reaction," J. Phys. Chem.86, 1930 (1982).
  42. W.H. Breckenridge and J. Stewart, "The Temperature Dependence of the Quenching of Mg(3PJ) by Hand D2:  Endoergic Chemical Reaction as Rate-limiting," J. Chem. Phys. 77, 4469 (1982).
  43. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Reaction of Mg(3s3p1P1) with a Variety of Alkyl C-H Bonds:  Identical Initial MgH(X2Σ+,v=0) Rotational Quantum State Distributions," J. Chem. Phys. 77, 4464 (1982).
  44. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Absolute Cross-Sections for the Quenching of Excited Ca(4s4p1P1) by Several Molecules," Chem. Phys. Lett. 93, 387 (1982).
  45. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Collisional Quenching of Electronically Excited Metal Atoms," The Dynamics of the Excited State, ed. K. Lawley, (Advances in Chemical PhysicsVol. 50, Wiley, 1982).
  46. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Initial Distributions of Vibrational and Rotational Quantum States of MgO(X1Σ+) in the Reaction of Mg(3s3p 1P1) with CO2," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 476 (1983).
  47. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Reactions of Mg(1S0), Mg(3PJ), and Mg(1P1) with Diatomic and Triatomic Oxidants," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 1804 (1983).
  48. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "The Effective Delay Time in Pump-and-Probe Measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 79, 745 (1983).
  49. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Measurement of Unrelaxed Rotational Distributions Using the Laser Pump-and-Probe Technique," Chem. Phys. Lett. 101, 377 (1983).
  50. W.H. Breckenridge, "Reactions of Electronically Excited Atoms," Reactions of Small Transient Species, M. Clyne and A. Fontijn, eds., Academic Press, 1983.
  51. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Nascent Internal Energy Distributions of MgH(MgD) in the Reaction of Mg(3s3p1P1) with H2(D2)," J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4168 (1984).
  52. W.H. Breckenridge and H. Umemoto, "Nascent Internal Energy Distributions of MgH Produced in the Reactions of Mg(3s3p1P1) with a Variety of Polyatomic Molecules," J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3852 (1984).
  53. A. Kowalski, M. Czajkowski, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Laser Excitation Spectrum of the Og+(X1Σg+) - Ou+(3Πu) Transition in Cd2," Chem. Phys. Lett. 119, 368 (1985).
  54. A. Kowalski, M. Czajkowski, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Excitation Spectra of CdNe, CdAr, and CdKr Molecules in a Supersonic Jet," Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 217 (1985).
  55. John G. McCaffrey, J. Mark Parnis, Geoffrey A. Ozin, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Photochemical Synthesis of Magnesium Dihydride (MgH2) and Methyl Magnesium Hydride (CH3MgH) in Cryogenic Matrices," J. Phys. Chem. 89, 4945 (1985).
  56. W.H. Breckenridge, M.-C. Duval, C. Jouvet, and B. Soep, "Laser Double-Resonance Studies of Rydberg States of HgAr," Chem. Phys. Lett. 122, 181 (1985).
  57. W.H. Breckenridge and J. Wang, "Initial Internal Energy Distributions of ZnH (ZnD) Produced in the Reaction of Zn(3P1) with H2, HD, and D2," Chem. Phys. Lett. 123, 17 (1986).
  58. W.H. Breckenridge, H. Umemoto, and J. Wang, "Initial Internal Energy Distributions of CdH (CdD) Produced in the Reaction of Cd(3P1) with H2, HD, and D2," Chem. Phys. Lett. 123, 23 (1986).
  59. W.H. Breckenridge, C. Jouvet, and B. Soep, "Orbitally Selective Chemical Reaction in Hg-H2 Van der Waals Complexes," J. Chem. Phys. 84, 1443 (1986).
  60. W. H. Breckenridge and G. M. Stewart, "Pulsed Laser Photolysis of Chromium Hexacarbonyl in the Gas Phase," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 364 (1986).
  61. W.H. Breckenridge, D. Oba, and W. Nikolai, "Chemical and Physical Exit Channels in the Quenching of Cd(5s5p 1P1) by Several Molecules." J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5724 (1986).
  62. M.-C. Duval, O. Benoist D'Azy, W.H. Breckenridge, C. Jouvet, and B. Soep, "The Structure of Several Electronic States of the Hg-Ar Complex as Determined by Laser Double Resonance in a Supersonic Jet," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6324 (1986).
  63. A. Kowalski, D. Funk, and W. H. Breckenridge, "Excitation Spectra of CaAr, SrAr, and BaAr in a Supersonic Jet," Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 263 (1986).
  64. W.H. Breckenridge and J.-H. Wang, "Dynamics of the Reactions of Mg(3s3p1P1) with H2, HD, and D2: Rotational Quantum State Distributions of MgH(MgD) Products," Chem. Phys. Lett. 137, 195 (1987).
  65. W.H. Breckenridge and J.-H. Wang, "Dynamics of the Reactions of Zn(4s4p3P1) with H2, HD, and D2: Rotational and Vibrational Quantum State Distributions of ZnH (ZnD) Products," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2630 (1987).
  66. G. Chalasinski, D.J. Funk, J. Simons, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory for Van Der Waals Complexes Bound by Electron Correlation Effects: Ground States of the Ar and Mg Dimers," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3569 (1987).
  67. W.H. Breckenridge and J.-H. Wang, "The Lack of Leaving-Atom Isotope Effects on Rotational State Distributions in M* + H2(HD) 6 MH(v,N) + H(D) Reactions: 'Half-Collision' Classical Trajectories on Model H-M-H Anisotropic Potential Surfaces," Chem. Phys. Lett. 139, 28 (1987).
  68. W.H. Breckenridge, O. Benoist d'Azy, M.C. Duval, C. Jouvet, and B. Soep, "Excited Van Der Waals Complexes as a Probe for Intermediate States in Collisions," NATO ASI Ser., Ser. C200, 149-62 (1987).
  69. W.H. Breckenridge, M.C. Duval, C. Jouvet, and B. Soep, "Reactions in Van der Waals Complexes.  An Experimental Approach to the Reactive Surfaces of Hg(3P1) + H2," J. de Chim. Physique 84, 381 (1987).
  70. W.H. Breckenridge, M.C. Duval, C. Jouvet and B. Soep, "Structure and Dynamics of Mercury Van der Waals Complexes," NATO ASI Ser., Ser. C212, 213-29 (1987).
  71. W.H. Breckenridge and C.N. Merrow, "Nascent Distributions of Ca(4s3d1D2), Ca(4s3d3DJ), and Ca(4s4p3PJ) Quantum States in the Collisional Deactivation of Ca(4s4p1P1) by the Rare Gases," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 2320 (1988).
  72. W.H. Breckenridge and C.N. Merrow, "Exclusive Production of Ba(6s6p3P2) in the Collisional Deactivation of Ba(6s6p1P1) by the Rare Gases," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 2329 (1988).
  73. A. Kvaran, D.J. Funk, A. Kowalski, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Spectroscopic Characterization of the X(10+) and A(30+) States of CdNe, CdAr, CdKr, and CdXe," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6069 (1988).
  74. I. Wallace, R.R. Bennett, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Spectroscopic Characterization of the X1Σ0+ and C1Π1States of the ZnAr van der Waals Molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 153, 127 (1988).
  75. Th. Glenewinkel-Meyer, A. Kowalski, B. Müller, Ch. Ottinger, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Emission Spectra and Electronic Structure of Group IIIa Monohalide Cations," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 7112 (1988).
  76. R.R. Bennett, J.G. McCaffrey, I. Wallace, D.J. Funk, A. Kowalski, and W.H. Breckenridge, "A Laser Spectroscopic Study of the X1Σ0+-C1ΠTransition of MgAr: Evidence for Λ-type Doubling," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 2139 (1989).
  77. D.J. Funk, A. Kvaran, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Spectroscopic Characterization of the Lowest Singlet States of CdNe, CdAr, and CdKr," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 2915 (1989).
  78. D.J. Funk and W.H. Breckenridge, "Half-Collision Dynamics: Exclusive Production of Cd(5s5p3P2) From the Predissociation of Cd(5s5p1P1)@Xe Electronic States," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 2927 (1989).
  79. J.G. McCaffrey, R.R. Bennett, M.D. Morse, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Laser Excitation Spectroscopy of the A and B States of Jet-Cooled Copper Dimer: Evidence for Large Electronic Isotope Shifts," J. Chem. Phys.91, 92 (1989).
  80. D.J. Funk, W.H. Breckenridge, Jack Simons, and G. Chalasinski, "MPPT Calculation of Alkaline Earth-Rare Gas Complexes: Ground States of Mg@He and Mg@Ar," J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1114 (1989).
  81. C. Jouvet, M.C. Duval, B. Soep, W.H. Breckenridge, and C. Whitham, "Orbital Orientation in van der Waals Reactions," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 285, 1133 (1989).
  82. W.H. Breckenridge, "Chemical Reactions and Energy Transfer Processes of Electronically Excited Group IIb Metal Atoms: Full Collisions and Half Collisions," Accounts of Chemical Research22, 21 (1989).
  83. C. Jouvet, M.C. Duval, W.H. Breckenridge and B. Soep, "Reaction in van der Waals Complexes," pp. 579-593 in Spectral Lineshapes, J. Szudy, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam and Ossolineum, Wroclaw, Poland (1989).
  84. R.R. Bennett and W.H. Breckenridge, "Spectroscopic Characterization of the ã3Π0-, 3Π2, and E3Σ+ States of ZnAr," J. Chem. Phys. 92, 1588 (1990).
  85. R.R. Bennett, J.G. McCaffrey, and W.H. Breckenridge, "A Spectroscopic Characterization of the ã3Π0-, A3Π0+, and E3Σ+ States of the MgAr van der Waals Molecule," J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2740 (1990).
  86. I. Wallace, J. Kaup, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Excitation of Zn(4s4p1P1) Within the Zn@Xe van der Waals Complex:  Effect of p-orbital Alignment on the Production of Zn(4s4p3PJ)," J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8060 (1991)
  87. M.-C. Duval, B. Soep, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Bonding in Complexes of Hg(6s6s1S0) and Hg(6s6p3P1) with Rare-Gas Atoms and Small Molecules:  From Physical to Chemical Interactions," J. Phys. Chem. 95, 7145 (1991) (Invited Feature Article).
  88. I. Wallace, J. Ryter, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Spectroscopic characterization of the X1Σand C1Π1 states of the ZnKr molecule," J. Chem. Phys. 96, 136 (1992).
  89. R.R. Bennett and W.H. Breckenridge, "Van der Waals bonding in the lowest electronic states of MgAr, ZnAr, CdAr, and HgAr: Spectroscopic characterization of the b3Π2 and e3Σ+ states of the CdAr molecule,"J. Chem. Phys. 96, 882 (1992).
  90. Z. Fu, S. Massick, J.G. Kaup, O. Benoist d'Azy, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Spectroscopic Characterization of the X2Π1/2, B2Σ1/2, and H2Σ1/2 States of AlKr," J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1683 (1992).
  91. I. Wallace and W.H. Breckenridge, "Half-Collision Studies:  Action Spectroscopy of Energy Transfer Within the Cd@CH4 Van der Waals Complex," J. Chem. Phys. 97, 2318 (1992).
  92. I. Wallace, D.J. Funk, J.G. Kaup, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Half-Collision Studies of Singlet-to-Triplet Energy Transfer:  Action Spectroscopy and Predissociation Dynamics of Electronically Excited Cd@H2 and Cd@D2 Complexes," J. Chem. Phys. 97, 3135 (1992).
  93. I. Wallace, D.J. Funk, J.G. Kaup, and W.H. Breckenridge, "The Interactions of Metal Atoms with XeCH4, and H2:  Half Collision Studies," in Gas Phase Metal Reactions, ed. A. Fontijn (Elsevier, 1992).
  94. S. Bililign, M.D. Morse, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Predissociation Lifetimes of Vibrational Levels of the Excited 1B1 (K = 0) Electronic States of Cd@H2 and Cd@D2 Complexes," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2115 (1993).
  95. I. Wallace and W.H. Breckenridge, "Spectroscopic Characterization of the X1Σ+ and C1Π States of the Mg@Ne Molecule," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2768 (1993).
  96. S. Bililign, M. Gutowski, Jack Simons, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Singlet-to-Triplet Energy Transfer via1Π1/3Σ Curve Crossings in Group 2 and 12 Metal-Atom/Rare-Gas Systems," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 3815 (1993).
  97. W.H. Breckenridge, I. Wallace, D. J. Funk, J.G. Kaup, M. Morse, and S. Bililign, "Half-Collision Studies of Singlet-to-Triplet Energy Transfer: Action Spectroscopy and Predissociation Dynamics of Electronically Excited Cd@H2 and Cd@D2 Complexes," Proc. SPIEE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 1858, 247 (1993).
  98. J.G. McCaffrey, D.J. Funk, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Characterization of the First Excited 1Π1 State and the Ground X1Σ+ State of Mg@Xe. I. Analysis of the 1Π1 7 X1Σ+ Bound-bound Transition," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9472 (1993).
  99. J.G. McCaffrey, D.J. Funk, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Characterization of the First Excited 1Π1 State and the Ground X1Σ+ State of Mg@Xe. II. Analysis of 1Π1 6 1Σ+ Bound-free Emission Spectra," J. Chem. Phys. 100, 955 (1994).
  100. S. Bililign, M. Gutowski, Jack Simons, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Potential Energy Curves of M(np2P)@RG(2Π) Excited States and M+@RG Ground States (M = Li, Na; RG = He, Ne)," J. Chem. Phys.100, 8212 (1994).
  101. W.H. Breckenridge, "Singlet-to-Triplet Energy Transfer Within M@RG Van der Waals Complexes (M = Metal, RG = Rare-Gas)," in International Reviews in Physical Chemistry13, 291 (1994).
  102. J.G. Kaup, S. Bililign, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Full- and Half-Collision Studies of Metal Atom Singlet-to-Triplet Deactivation Induced by Rare Gas Atoms," J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7878 (1995).
  103. J.G. Kaup and W.H. Breckenridge, "Singlet-to-Triplet Energy Transfer Within M(RG)n van der Waals Clusters (M = Mg, Zn; RG = Ar, Kr, Xe)," J. Phys. Chem. 99, 13701 (1995).
  104. I. Wallace, S. Bililign, D.J. Funk, J.G. Kaup, M.D. Morse, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Half-Collision Studies of Singlet-to-Triplet Energy Transfer Within Electronically Excited Cd@H2 and Cd@D2 Complexes," in The Chemical Dynamics and Kinetics of Small Radicals, eds. B. Liu and A. Wagner (World Scientific, 1995).
  105. W.H. Breckenridge, C. Jouvet, and B. Soep, "Metal-Atom/Rare-Gas Van der Waals Complexes," inAdvances in Metal and Semiconductor Clusters, Vol. 3, ed. M. Duncan (JAI Press, Greenwich, 1995).
  106. Steven Massick and W.H. Breckenridge, "A New Class of Strongly Bound, Doubly Excited Valence States of Neutral Van der Waals Molecules: Mg(3pπ,3pπ 3PJ)@Ar(3ΣG)," J. Chem. Phys104, 7784 (1996) [Accepted as a Communication].
  107. J.-H. Wang, H. Umemoto, Allen W. K. Leung, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Reactions of Zn(4s4p 3P1) and Cd(5s5p 3P1) with SiH4," J. Chem. Phys. 104, 9401 (1996).
  108. Steven Massick and W.H. Breckenridge, "A Determination of the Ionization Threshold for the Mg(3s3p 3P0)@Ar(3Π0-) Metastable State: The Bond Energy of MgAr+," Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 465 (1996).
  109. W.H. Breckenridge, "Activation of Si-H, C-H, and H-H Bonds by nsnp Excited States of Metal Atoms," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 14840 (1996).
  110. Allen W.K. Leung, Mark Roberson, Jack Simons, and W.H. Breckenridge, "Strong Bonding in a Doubly Excited Valence State of a van der Waals Molecule,@ Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 199 (1996).
  111. Steven Massick and W.H. Breckenridge, "Doubly-Excited Valence States of Neutral van der Waals Molecules: Mg(3pπ,3pπ 3PJ)@Ar(3ΣG)," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6154 (1996).
  112. Steven Massick and W.H. Breckenridge, "Spectroscopic Characterization of the Excited Mg(3s3d 3DJ)AAr(3Π), Mg(3s3d 3DJ)@Ar(3Δ) and Mg(3s4p 3PJ)@Ar(3Π) van der Waals States,@ J. Chem. Phys. 105, 9719 (1996).
  113. Steven Massick and W.H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Characterization of the 3Δ(4d), 3Π(4d), 3Σ+(4d), and 3Π(5p) Rydberg States of the MgAr van der Waals Molecule,@ J. Chem. Phys. 106, 2171 (1997).
  114. John G. Kaup and W. H. Breckenridge, ABond Energies of MgKr+ and MgXe+ from Resonant Two-color Photoionization Thresholds,@ J. Chem. Phys. 107, 2180 (1997).
  115. John G. Kaup and W. H. Breckenridge, ABond Energies of CaAr+, CaKr+, and CaXe+ from Resonant Two-color Photoionization Thresholds,@J. Chem. Phys.107, 4451 (1997).
  116. John G. Kaup and W. H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Characterization of the Metastable 4pπ 3Π0- Valence States and the 5s 3Σ+ Rydberg States of the CaAr, CaKr, and CaXe van der Waals Molecules,@J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5283 (1997).
  117. John G. Kaup and W. H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Characterization of the Singly-excited CaAr(4dπ 3Π0), CaAr(4dδ 3Δ1) States and the Doubly-excited CaAr(4pπ4pπ 3Σ!) State,@ J. Chem. Phys.107, 5676 (1997).
  118. John G. Kaup and W. H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Characterization of the Excited Valence MgKr(3dδ 3Δ1) and MgKr(3dπ 3Π0) van der Waals States,@J. Chem. Phys.107, 6005 (1997).
  119. John G. Kaup and W. H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Characterization of the Excited Valence MgXe(3dδ 3Δ1), MgXe(3dπ 3Π0), and MgXe(A3dσ@ 3Σ+) van der Waals States,@ J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6014 (1997).
  120. John G. Kaup, Allen W. K. Leung, and W. H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Characterization of the Metastable 3pπ 3Π0+,0- Valence States and the 4s 3Σ+ Rydberg States of the MgKr and MgXe van der Waals Molecules,@ J. Chem. Phys. 107, 10492 (1997).
  121. W. H. Breckenridge, M. D. Morse, and John G. McCaffrey, AA Pair Potentials Study of Matrix-isolated Atomic Zinc. II. Intersystem Crossing in Rare-Gas Clusters and Matrices, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3137 (1998)
  122. Allen W. K. Leung, John G. McCaffrey, and W. H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Characterization of the Unusually Strongly Bound Doubly-Excited van der Waals State, Mg(3pπ3pπ 3PJ)AKr[3Σ!], J. Chem. Phys.109, 7777 (1998).
  123. Allen W. K. Leung, Ryan R. Julian, and W.H. Breckenridge, AThe Lowest Energy 3Π2,1,0+,0- and 3Σ+1,0- Excited States of the MgANe van der Waals Molecule,@ Chem. Phys. Lett301, 325 (1999).
  124. John G. McCaffrey, D. Bellert, Allen W. K. Leung, and W.H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Characterization of the Zn(4s2)ANe[1Σ+] and Zn(4s4pπ)ANe[1Π1] van der Waals States,@ Chem. Phys. Lett302, 113 (1999).
  125. Allen W. K. Leung, D. Bellert, Ryan R. Julian, and W.H. Breckenridge, AResonant Two-Color Photoionization Threshold Measurements of the Zn+AAr Bond Strength: Model-potential Analysis of M+/Ar Interactions,@ J. Chem. Phys. 110, 6298 (1999).
  126. Allen W. K. Leung, Ryan R. Julian, and W.H. Breckenridge, APotential Curves for the Ground States and Some Excited States of MgNe, Mg+Ne, and Mg+2Ne van der Waals Complexes,@ J. Chem. Phys. 110, 8443 (1999).
  127. Allen W. K. Leung, John G. Kaup, D. Bellert, John G. McCaffrey, and W.H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic characterization of the Ca(4s4dδ 3DJ)ARG[3Δ1,2] van der Waals states (RG = Ar, Kr, Xe): No >heavy-atom= mixing of RG(ndδ) character into the wave functions,@ J. Chem. Phys. 111, 981 (1999).
  128. Allen W. K. Leung, John G. Kaup, D. Bellert, John G. McCaffrey, and W. H. Breckenridge,ASpectroscopic Characterization of the Weakly Bound Ca(4s4dσ 3D3)AAr[3Σ+] State: Evidence for a Substantial Maximum in the Potential Curve at Long Range,@ J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2484 (1999).
  129. Allen W. K. Leung, Ryan R. Julian, and W.H. Breckenridge, APotential Curves for the Ground States and Some Excited States of MgAHe, Mg+AHe and Mg2+AHe van der Waals Complexes,@ J. Chem. Phys.111, 4999 (1999).
  130. Allen W. K. Leung, D. Bellert, and W. H. Breckenridge, ASpectroscopic Analysis of an Unusual CaAXe[3Σ!] 7 Ca(4s4pπ 3P0)AXe[3Π0-] Transition,@ J. Chem. Phys.111, 6434 (1999).
  131. Allen W. K. Leung and W.H. Breckenridge, AAn Ab Initio Study of  the Ground States and Some Excited States of BeRG, Be+RG and Be+2RG van der Waals Complexes (RG = He, Ne),@J. Chem. Phys. 111, 9197 (1999).
  132. Darrin Bellert, Katherine L. Burns, Rodric Wampler, and W. H. Breckenridge, AAn Accurate Determination of the Ionization Energy of the MgO Molecule,@ Chem. Phys. Lett. 322, 41 (2000).
  133. Mohamed Elhanine, Laure Dukan, Philippe Maitre, W. H. Breckenridge, Steve Massick, and Benoit Soep,ASolvation of Magnesium and Singly Ionised Magnesium Atoms in NH3 Clusters, Theory and Experiment,J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10912 (2000).
  134. Katherine L. Burns, D. Bellert, Allen W.-K. Leung, and W. H. Breckenridge, AThe Effects of Dispersive Cn/Rn Attraction on M+/RG Bonding (M+ = Atomic Metal Ion, RG = Rare Gas Atom),J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2996 (2001).
  135. D. Bellert and W. H. Breckenridge, AA Spectroscopic Determination of the Bond Length of the LiOLi Molecule: Strong Ionic Bonding, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2871 (2001).
  136. D. Bellert and W. H. Breckenridge, AA Resonant Two-Color Photoionization Threshold Determination of the Ionization Energy of the LiOLi Molecule, Chem. Phys. Lett337, 103 (2001).
  137. Katherine L. Burns, D. Bellert, Allen W.-K. Leung, and W. H. Breckenridge, AM+/Rg Bonding: The Effects of M+ Permanent Quadrupole Moments (M+ = Atomic Metal Ion; Rg = Rare Gas Atom), J. Chem. Phys. 114, 7877 (2001).
  138. D. Bellert, Darin K. Winn, and W. H. Breckenridge, “Dispersed Fluorescence Studies of Linear LiOLi: A Strongly-Bound, but Very ‘Floppy’ Ionic Molecule,” Chem. Phys. Lett348, 39 (2001).
  139. D. Bellert, Darin K. Winn, and W. H. Breckenridge, “Spectroscopic Determination of the Vibrational Frequencies of the First 1B1 Excited State of LiOLi,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 151 (2002).
  140. D. Bellert and W.H. Breckenridge, ABonding in Ground and Excited States of A+ARg van der Waals Ions (A = Atom, Rg = Rare Gas Atom): A Model Potential Analysis,Chemical Reviews 102, 1595 (2002).
  141. D. Bellert, Darin K. Winn, and W. H. Breckenridge, ARovibrational Energy Levels of the LiOLi Molecule from Dispersed Fluorescence and Stimulated Emission Pumping Studies, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 3139 (2002).
  142. F. Spiegelman, L. Maron, W. H. Breckenridge, J.-M. Mestdagh, and J.-P. Visticot, ATwo-electron Pseudopotential Investigation of the Electronic Structure of the CaAr Molecule,@ J. Chem. Phys. 117, 7534 (2002).
  143. W. H. Breckenridge, P.-R. Fournier, M.-A. Gaveau, J.-M Mestdagh, and J. P. Visticot, AReactions of N2O with Lin in the Gas Phase and on the Surfaces of Large Arn Clusters, Chem. Phys. Lett. 364, 225 (2002).
  144. Kasper Hald, Poul Jørgensen, Michal Jaszu½ski, and W.H. Breckenridge, ACalculation of ground and excited state potential energy curves of the MgAr complex using the coupled cluster approximate triples model CC3,@ Chem. Phys. Lett364, 402 (2002).
  145. D. Bellert, Darin K. Winn, and W. H. Breckenridge, “Spectroscopic Characterization of the First Singlet (Ã1B1) Excited State of 7Li16O7Li, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10169 (2003).
  146. D. Bellert, Katherine L. Burns, Nguyen-Thi Van-Oanh, Jinjin Wang, and W. H. Breckenridge, “A New Source for Vibrationally Excited and Rotationally Cold Metal-Oxide Molecules: Spectroscopic Characterization of the Low-Lying a3P2 Metastable Excited State of the MgO Molecule,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 381 (2003).
  147. D. Bellert, Katherine L. Burns, Nguyen-Thi Van-Oanh, Jinjin Wang, and W. H. Breckenridge, “Spectroscopic Characterization of the F 1P1 ‘Rydberg’ State of the MgO Molecule,” Chem. Phys. Lett.381, 725 (2003).
  148. Jinjin Wang, Nguyen-Thi Van-Oanh, D. Bellert, W.H. Breckenridge, Marc-Andre Gaveau, Eric Gluoagen,Benoit Soep, and J.-M. Mestdagh, “Laser Spectroscopic Studies of the E 1S+ ‘Rydberg’ State of the MgO Molecule,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 62 (2004).
  149. Jinjin Wang and W.H. Breckenridge, “Laser Spectroscopic Studies of Several Rydberg States of MgO,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124308 (2006).
  150. W.H. Breckenridge, Victoria L. Ayles, and Timothy G. Wright, “Analysis of the Bonding in Alkali-Cation/Rg Complexes (Rg=He–Xe) Using a Simple Model Potential,” Chem. Phys. 333, 77 (2007).      
  151. Ahlam Yousef, Shraddha Shrestha, Larry A. Viehland, Edmond P.F. Lee, Benjamin R. Gray, Victoria L. Ayles, Timothy G. Wright, and W.H. Breckenridge, “Interaction potentials and transport properties of coinage metal cations in rare gases,” J. Chem. Phys.  127, 154508 (2007).
  152. Edmond P.F. Lee, Benjamin R. Gray, Nicole Joyner, Stephanie Johnson, Larry A. Viehland, W.H. Breckenridge, Timothy G. Wright, "Accurate potential energy curves for Zn-Rg (Rg= He-Rn): Spectroscopy and transport coefficients," Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 19 (2007).
  153. Richard J. Plowright, Victoria L. Ayles, Mark J. Watkins, Adrian M. Gardner, Rossana R. Wright, Timothy G. Wright, and W.H. Breckenridge, “Reinvestigation of the electronic spectroscopy of the Au-Ar complex,”J. Chem. Phys. 127, 204308 (2007).
  154. W.H. Breckenridge, Victoria L. Ayles, and Timothy G. Wright, "Evidence for Emergent Chemical Bonding in Au+ -Rg Complexes (Rg= Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe)," J. Phys. Chem. A, 1124209 (2008).
  155. Timothy G. Wright, Mark J. Watkins, Richard J. Plowright, and W.H. Breckenridge, “Qualitative Theoretical Investigation of Au(6p)-Ar,”  Chem. Phys. Lett. 45970(2008).
  156. Richard J. Plowright, Mark J. Watkins, Adrian M. Gardner, Timothy G. Wright, W.H. Breckenridge, F. Wallimann, and S. Leutwyler, “Electronic Spectroscopy of the Au(6p)-Kr Complex,” J. Chem. Phys. 129,154315 (2008).
  157. Richard J. Plowright, Mark J. Watkins, Adrian M. Gardner, Carolyn D. Withers, Timothy G. Wright, and W.H. Breckenridge, “Electronic Spectroscopy of the Au-Xe Complex”, Phys. Chem., Chem. Phys. 11, 1539 (2009).
  158. Niloufahr Shafizadeh, Benoit Soep, Jean-Michel Mestdagh, and W.H. Breckenridge, “Charge Transfer in Metal-atom-containing Molecules in the Gas Phase,” Int. Revs. Phys. Chem. 28, 359 (2009).
  159. M. F. McGuirk, L. A. Viehland, E. P. F. Lee, W.H. Breckenridge, C. D. Withers, A. M. Gardner, R.J. Plowright, and T. G. Wright, “Theoretical Study of Ban+-RG Complexes and Transport of Ban+ Through RG (RG = He-Rn),” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194305 (2009).
  160. R. J. Plowright, A. M. Gardner, C. D. Withers, T. G. Wright, M. D. Morse, and W. H. Breckenridge, “Electronic Spectroscopy of the 6p ← 6s Transition in Au-Ne: Trends in the Au-RG Series,” J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 3103 (2010) [Benoit Soep Festschrift].
  161. T. G. Wright and W. H. Breckenridge, “The Radii of Atomic Ions Determined From Diatomic Ion-He Bond Lengths,” J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 3182 (2010) [Benoit Soep Festschrift].
  162. A. M. Gardner, C. D. Withers, T. G. Wright, K. I. Kaplan, C. Y. N. Chapman, L. A. Viehland, E. P. F. Lee, and W. H. Breckenridge, “Theoretical Study of the Bonding in Mn+-RG Complexes and the Transport of Mn+ Through RG (M = Ca, Sr, Ra; n = 1,2; RG = He-Rn),” J. Chem. Phys. 132 054302 (2010).
  163. A. M. Gardner, R. J. Plowright, M. J. Watkins, T. G. Wright, and W.H. Breckenridge, “Theoretical Study of the X2Σ+ States of the Neutral CM-RG Complexes (CM = Coinage Metal, Cu, Ag and Au; RG = Rare Gas, He-Rn),” J. Chem. Phys. 132, 184301 (2010).
  164. A.M. Gardner, C.D. Withers, J.B. Graneek, T. G. Wright, L.A. Viehland, and W.H. Breckenridge, �Theoretical Study of M+-RG and M2+-RG Complexes and Transport of M+ through RG (M = Be and Mg; RG = He-Rn),� J. Phys. Chem. A (in press, 2010).